Mesothelioma - Causes, symptoms, and Diagnosis - Salma Health

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Mesothelioma - Causes, symptoms, and Diagnosis

Mesothelioma is a cancer that attacks the mesothelium, namely tissues that line various body organs. There are four types of mesothelioma cancer, namely:

- Pleural mesothelioma (pleural mesothelioma), i.e. cancer that attacks the mesothelium lining of the lung (pleura). This type is the most common type.
- Mesothelioma peritoneum (peritoneal mesothelioma), namely abdominal cavity membranes on mesothelioma (peritoneum).
- Mesothelioma in pericardium (pericardial mesothelioma), i.e. a mesothelioma attacks the protective layer of the organ of the heart.
- Mesothelioma testicles (testicular mesothelioma), i.e. a mesothelioma attacks the protective lining in the testes or fruity phallus.

There are benign tumors in the chest called the solitary fibrous tumors are sometimes called benign mesothelioma. The condition is not included in mesothelioma will be discussed.

Causes Of Mesothelioma

Cause of mesothelioma is not yet known for sure. However, mesothelioma has always been associated with exposure to asbestos or asbestos. Asbestos is a mineral that is widely used as a building construction materials, such as roof, because of its heat-resistant and flame-retardant. The use of asbestos has officially been banned since 1999.

When asbestos is destroyed, either during the process of mining or building renovation, asbestos fibers or dust will result in a fine. Smooth fibers asbestos is very easy to breathe, then enters and settles in the body organs, especially the lungs. Asbestos fibers are ingested can also move through the lymphatic system, settles, and infect the cells lining the abdominal cavity (peritoneum).

Asbestos exposure can also affect the function of the reproductive organs and the heart. However, it is not yet known definitively process its spread because it is very rare.

In General, there are several factors that increase the risk of mesothelioma, which are:
- Working environment the vulnerable exposed asbestos, such as mineral mines, construction sites, the automotive industry, electric power, textiles, and steel mills.
- Live in old buildings or land environments contain asbestos.
- Have family members working in an environment that is vulnerable to exposure to asbestos. Asbestos can be stuck to the skin and clothing, so that asbestos can be carried over into the home or other environments.
- Have a history of genetic abnormalities or mesothelioma increases the risk of cancer.

Besides asbestos, there are several other factors that can increase the risk of mesothelioma, though rare. Among them are exposure to mineral erionite, exposure to radiation from thorium dioxide chemicals used in an examination of x-rays until 1950 's, and infected with simian viruses (SV40).

Symptoms Of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma symptoms develop gradually and usually takes years to appear 20-30 symptoms. Patients may not feel any symptoms when mesothelioma is at an early stage. But over time, the cancer cells will be growing and pressing nerves or other organs, giving rise to symptoms.

Mesothelioma symptoms differ depending on the location of the presence of cancer cells. On Lung mesothelioma, symptoms may appear as follows:

- Fever accompanied by sweating, especially at night.
- A sense of weary overload.
- Cough accompanied by pain is not unbearable.
- Shortness of breath due to a buildup of fluid in the lungs, in the pleural cavity, i.e. the Chamber between the two layers of the pleura overlying the lung.
- Weight loss without a clear reason.
- Chest pain.
- Swelling and changes shape at the tip of a finger (finger tabuh).
- Lump on the network appear beneath the surface of the skin of the chest area.

While mesothelioma, abdominal (peritoneal) have any of the following:

- Loss of appetite.
- Weight dropped dramatically.
- Diarrhea.
- Constipation.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Swelling in the abdominal area.
- Lump in the abdomen appears.
- Disorders of defecation and urination.

Pericardium and testicular mesothelioma is mesothelioma types are very rare. Mesothelioma usually cause symptoms of pericardium in the form of chest pain and respiratory disorders, while testicular mesothelioma characterized by swelling or lumps in the emergence of the testicular area.

Mesothelioma symptoms are not specific and can be caused by other conditions. Therefore, immediately encountered a doctor if feel the symptoms above, especially if you have a history of exposure to asbestos.

Mesothelioma Diagnosis

The doctor will suspect a patient suffering from mesothelioma, if there are symptoms, reinforced by a physical examination. But for sure, the Imaging tests need to be done. Among these are:

- X-rays, to detect any abnormalities, such as thickening of the lining of the lung, in the fluid in the pleural cavity, or change shape.
- CT scans, to check the area of the chest and abdomen, as well as detect any sign of cancer, determine the location of the cancer, and check if the cancer has spread to other organs of the body.
- Pet (Positron Emission Tomography). Examination by using compounds that contain radioactive atoms are injected into the body to get an overview of the details of the suspected network there are cancer cells.
- MRI, to get a more detailed picture of the network determines the location of the tumor.

In addition, the doctor may also recommend a follow-up examination include:

#1 Examination of a sample of the liquid. If the patient is experiencing a buildup of fluid in the body mesothelioma related, then the doctor will take a sample of fluid using a needle that is inserted through the skin into a liquid is located. Furthermore, the liquid will be analyzed in the laboratory to detect the presence of cancer cells. There are several types of tests of samples of fluids and tissues, namely:

- Thoracentesis, sampling the fluid in the pleural cavity area.
- Paracentesis, uptake of fluid in the abdominal cavity.
- Pericardiocentesis, uptake of fluid in the lining (membrane) around the heart.

#2 The biopsy procedure, namely the appointment of tissue samples from specific parts of the body and then analyzed in a laboratory. There are several types of examination of a biopsy, namely:

- Biopsy needles. Types of biopsies using a long needle that is inserted through the skin into the cavity of the chest or abdomen to take tissue samples.

- Torakoskopi, laparoscopy, and mediastinoskopi. Types of biopsies using elastic hose berkamera and special surgical instruments are inserted through one or more small incisions to take tissue samples. The type of procedure appointment of samples generally depending on the body area undergoing inspection, namely:

# Torakoskopi, to check the space between the lung and the chest wall.
# Laparoscopy to check the inside of the abdominal organs.
# Mediastinoskopi, to check the area around the heart.

- Biopsy through surgery. For some conditions, doctors will perform invasive procedures to take larger tissue samples to determine the diagnosis. Sometimes, the doctor will also perform the procedure of appointment throughout the tumor if possible. There are two types of biopsy procedures through surgery, namely:

# Torakotomi, that is the type of biopsy performed through open-chest surgery.
# Laparotomi, that is the type of biopsy performed through open surgery in the abdomen.

- Biopsy Bronchoscopy. The procedure of appointment of tissue samples by using elastic tube measuring long and thin inserted through the throat to examine the respiratory tract.

Mesothelioma Stages

Based on the level of its spread, mesothelioma is divided into four stages. The Division of the stadium allows the doctor to identify the development of cancer cells in the body and determine the treatment to be performed. The fourth stage of the mesothelioma, namely:

- Stage 1: the Tumor is still is local, i.e. only within one area of the body and the cells of the mesothelioma have not spread to other organs or tissues. Actions performed to remove the tumor operation. Life expectancy of patients undiagnosed mesothelioma stage 1 is 21 months or so.

- Stage 2: the size of the tumors and mesothelioma cells start to spread to nearby areas. Surgical removal of the tumor is still can be done, though the results were not very effective. Life expectancy for patients of mesothelioma stage 2 is 19 months or less.

- Stage 3: Cell mesothelioma has spread to surrounding organs. The operation was no longer effective because most cancer cells have spread to other areas. Life expectancy of patients of mesothelioma stadium 3 is about 16 months old.

- Stage 4: cells of the mesothelioma has spread to various areas throughout the body via the bloodstream. The treatment is still in the research phase will be offered to the patient the opportunity to extend the patient's life. Mesothelioma patient life expectancy very low end of the stadium, which is about 12 months.

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